It is not known whether this drug passes into milk when applied to the skin. Rash and urticaria typically occurred in patients with a history of asthma. AH Robins Company, Inc. Diabetic gastroparesis: a literature review. Richmond, VA; 1979 Oct. slimex
Lieberman DA, Keefe EB. Treatment of severe reflux esophagitis with cimetidine and metoclopramide. Ann Intern Med. Ehrenkranz RA, Ackerman BA. Metoclopramide effect on faltering milk production by mothers of premature infants. Pediatrics. Appropriate use: Gastroesophageal reflux: If symptoms are confined to particular situations, such as following the evening meal, consider use of metoclopramide as a single dose prior to the provocative situation, rather than using the drug throughout the day. Symptoms of postprandial and daytime heartburn respond better to metoclopramide, with less observed effect on nocturnal symptoms. Because there is no documented correlation between symptoms and healing of esophageal lesions, patients with documented lesions should be monitored endoscopically. Healing of esophageal ulcers and erosions has been endoscopically demonstrated at the end of a 12-week trial using a dosage of 15 mg 4 times daily.
Windholz M, ed. The Merck index. Bateman DN, Gokal R, Dodd RP et al. The pharmacokinetics of single doses of metoclopramide in renal failure. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. Swallow with saliva formulation is designed to be taken without liquids. Edematous conditions: Use with caution in patients who are at risk of fluid overload HF, cirrhosis. Anon. Sulfites in foods and drugs. FDA Drug Bull.
RxList is part of the WebMD Health Network. The opinions expressed in the WebMD User Reviews are solely those of the User, who may or may not have medical or scientific training, and do not represent the opinions of WebMD. These member reviews have not been reviewed by a WebMD physician or any member of the WebMD editorial staff for accuracy, balance, objectivity, or any other purpose except for compliance with our Terms and Conditions. Hay AM, Man WK. Effect of metoclopramide on guinea pig stomach: critical dependence on intrinsic stores of acetylcholine. Gastroenterology. Accelerates gastric emptying and intestinal transit from the duodenum to the ileocecal valve by increasing the amplitude and duration of esophageal contractions, 4 resting tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, 5 7 8 30 39 40 41 42 267 and amplitude and tone of gastric especially antral contraction 5 7 9 16 25 33 37 38 43 44 267 and by relaxing the pyloric sphincter and the duodenal bulb, while increasing peristalsis of the duodenum and jejunum.
Guzman V, Toscano G, Canales ES et al. Improvement of defective lactation by using oral metoclopramide. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. WebMD User Reviews should not be considered as medical advice and are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your care plan or treatment. WebMD understands that reading individual, real-life experiences may be a helpful health information resource but they are never a substitute for professional medical advice from a qualified healthcare provider. Gosselin RE, Hodge HC, Smith RP et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products: acute poisoning. Bateman DN, Procter SJ, Rawlins ND et al. Kinetics and efficacy of high-dose metoclopramide used in the prevention of cytotoxic-induced nausea and vomiting. Br J Pharmacol. Restlessness, drowsiness, fatigue, lassitude, nausea, bowel disturbances principally diarrhea. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer off-label use: Oral, IV, IM, SubQ off-label route: 5 mg four times a day 30 minutes prior to meals and at bedtime Protus 2015. Postpartum mothers are at a relatively high risk for postpartum depression and metoclopramide can cause depression as a side effect. Therefore, metoclopramide should probably be avoided in women with a history of major depression and not used for prolonged periods in any mothers during this time of high susceptibility. Metoclopramide increases serum prolactin, but its clinical value in increasing milk supply is questionable. Galactogogues should never replace evaluation and counseling on modifiable factors that affect milk production. McCallum RW, Ippoliti AF, Cooney C et al. A controlled trial of metoclopramide in symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. N Engl J Med. Elderly: Risk of tardive dyskinesia may be increased in older women. Valenzuela JE. Dopamine as a possible neurotransmitter in gastric relaxation. Gastroenterology. Additives may be incompatible. Suspend container from eyelet support. For intermittent symptoms or symptoms at specific times of the day, one 20-mg dose before the provoking situation may be preferred to daily administration of multiple doses.
Studies with Sodium Chloride sodium chloride sodium chloride injection injection Injection, USP have not been performed to evaluate potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Anon. Drugs for vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy. Med Lett Drugs Ther. Known intolerance to metoclopramide. Do not drink alcohol while taking Metoclopramide Tablets. Alcohol may make some side effects of Metoclopramide Tablets worse, such as feeling sleepy. Hypotension, bradycardia, shock, and other abnormalities or cardiac conduction occurred most frequently with IV formulations. How should I store Metoclopramide Tablets? The clinical importance of the extra 20 mL of milk per day is questionable. Bright-Asare P, El-Bassoussi M. Cimetidine, metoclopramide or placebo in the treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. J Clin Gastroenterol. Malik IA, Khan WA, Qazilbash M et al. Clinical efficacy of lorazepam in prophylaxis of anticipatory, acute, and delayed nausea and vomiting induced by high doses of cisplatin. A prospective randomized trial. Am J Clin Oncol. Metoclopramide itself may suppress, or partially suppress, the signs of TD, thereby masking the underlying disease process. The effect of this symptomatic suppression upon the long-term course of TD is unknown. montelukast
LyphoMed, Inc. Metoclopramide hydrochloride injection prescribing information. Melrose Park, IL; 1985 Aug. PRECAUTIONS. Insomnia, headache, confusion, dizziness, or mental depression with suicidal ideation see WARNINGS occur less frequently. The incidence of drowsiness is greater at higher doses. There are isolated reports of convulsive seizures without clearcut relationship to metoclopramide. Rarely, hallucinations have been reported. Please refer to the for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations. F. Do not freeze. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. Albibi R, McCallum RW. Metoclopramide: pharmacology and clinical application. Ann Intern Med. Significant relief of nausea occurs early and continues to improve over a three-week period. Relief of vomiting and anorexia may precede the relief of abdominal fullness by one week or more. Continuous infusion: IV: 40 mg administered over 24 hours for 3 days; may repeat if bezoar is not cleared Delpre 1984. Kaplan S, Staffa JA, Dal Pan GJ. Duration of therapy with metoclopramide: a prescription claims data study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. azol.info bimatoprost
Tyson LB, Gralla RJ, Clark RA et al. Combination antiemetic trials with metoclopramide. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. Usually, one 10-mg dose given by direct IV injection. Yu YL, Kumana CR, Lauder IJ, et al. Treatment of acute cortical infarct with intravenous glycerol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Emulsion infusion for ICU sedation. US FDA pregnancy category B: Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Prozil and metoclopramide Primperan. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established see OVERDOSAGE. drug fluticasone price
Healthy Adults Less Than 55 Years of Age: A variable rate infusion technique is preferable over an intermittent bolus technique. Gupta AP, Gupta PK. Metoclopramide as a lactogogue. Clin Pediatr Phila. Perez EA. Review of the preclinical pharmacology and comparative efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced emesis. J Clin Oncol. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or promptly. Dystonic reactions typically presented as upper airway obstruction with stridor and dyspnea. Tardive dyskinesia abnormal muscle movements. See "What is the most important information I need to know about Metoclopramide Tablets? It is not known if Metoclopramide Tablets are safe and work in children. Rare occurrences of neuroleptic malignant syndrome NMS have been reported. This potentially fatal syndrome is comprised of the symptom complex of hyperthermia, altered consciousness, muscular rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction see WARNINGS. Unintentional overdose due to misadministration has been reported in infants and children with the use of metoclopramide oral solution. While there was no consistent pattern to the reports associated with these overdoses, events included seizures, extrapyramidal reactions, and lethargy. tegretol
HID. Trissel LA. Handbook on injectable drugs. SINGULAIR in two, 6-week, clinical studies. Winnan J, Avella J, Callachan C et al. Double-blind trial of metoclopramide versus placebo-antacid in symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology. Berkowitz DM, Metzger WH, Sturdevant RAL. Oral metoclopramide in diabetic gastroparesis and in chronic gastric retention after gastric surgery. Gastroenterology. This medicine may be harmful if swallowed. Premature and low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop toxicity. Possible increase in circulating catecholamines in hypertensive patients; use with caution in these patients.
If symptoms are severe or oral use is not feasible, 10 mg 4 times daily, given 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime. 5 267 Continued use for up to 10 days may be required until symptoms subside enough to allow oral administration; 5 267 however, thoroughly assess the risks and benefits prior to continuing therapy. McNeilly AS, Thomer MO, Volans G et al. Metoclopramide and prolactin. Remember that your doctor has prescribed this because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication not have serious side effects. Gralla RJ, Itri LM, Pisko SE et al. Antiemetic efficacy of high-dose metoclopramide: randomized trials with placebo and prochlorperazine in patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med. Clearance may be reduced. 5 54 59 142 192 267 Possible increased risk of adverse effects. 5 267 Use with caution; reduce dosage during prolonged therapy in patients with renal impairment. 5 54 58 59 69 135 142 267 See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration. Bui NB, Marit G, Hoerni B. High-dose metoclopramide in cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treat Rep. Metoclopramide has been used orally for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. 177 218 221 224 263 264 265 266 275 Some experts state that patients receiving oral chemotherapy requiring only as-needed “prn” antiemetic therapy or receiving an IV chemotherapy regimen with low emetic risk may receive oral metoclopramide. It is not known if Metoclopramide Tablets will harm your unborn baby. If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. For solution and drug compatibility information, see Compatibility under Stability. Newton-John H. Acute upper airway obstruction due to supraglottic dystonia induced by a neuroleptic. BMJ. Precise mechanism of antiemetic action is unclear. 2 4 8 52 60 61 103 125 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 Directly affects medullary chemoreceptor trigger zone CTZ apparently by blocking dopamine receptors; 2 4 8 52 60 61 103 125 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 increases CTZ threshold and decreases sensitivity of visceral nerves that transmit impulses from GI tract to vomiting center; 4 and enhances gastric emptying believed to minimize stasis that precedes vomiting. 4 125 Also may inhibit serotonin 5-HT 3 receptors at relatively high doses. Elderly, Debilitated, Neurosurgical, or ASA-PS III or IV Patients: Most patients require dosages similar to healthy adults. Sogn D. The ubiquitous sulfites. JAMA. cheap theophylline drug
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider. Beani L, Bianchi C, Crema C. Effects of metoclopramide on isolated guinea-pig colon: 1. Peripheral sensitization to acetylcholine. Eur J Pharmacol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. Injectable Emulsion or morphine. Emulsion infusion to provide satisfactory anesthesia. FEV 1 and daytime asthma symptoms. Safety and effectiveness of Sodium Chloride sodium chloride sodium chloride injection injection Injection, USP in pediatric patients have not been established by adequate and well controlled trials, however, the use of sodium chloride sodium chloride sodium chloride injection injection solutions in the pediatric population is referenced in the medical literature. The warnings, precautions and adverse reactions identified in the label copy should be observed in the pediatric population. Italian Group for Antiemetic Research. Metoclopramide should not be used in epileptics or patients receiving other drugs which are likely to cause extrapyramidal reactions, since the frequency and severity of seizures or extrapyramidal reactions may be increased. Symptomatic treatment of acute and recurrent diabetic gastric stasis gastroparesis. 5 7 32 44 76 77 78 79 80 83 84 88 89 267 Successful therapy often requires long-term, intermittent use, since diabetic gastric stasis is a chronic, recurrent disease. Krahenbuhl S, Raisin J, Herren T. Malignant neuroleptic syndrome under metoclopramide and neuroleptics in anuria. But you need only about 300 more calories per day, Redfern says, about the equivalent of "one slice of whole grain bread and one tablespoon of peanut butter. Hansen WF, McAndrew S et al. Metoclopramide effect on breastfeeding the preterm infant: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. CYP3A4, 2C8, and 2C9 are involved in the metabolism of montelukast. Another case of galactorrhea was reported in a woman after 5 days of treatment and having a slightly low serum prolactin level. Parkinsonian-like symptoms may include bradykinesia, tremor, cogwheel rigidity, mask-like facies see WARNINGS. price adapalene sams club
In general, the incidence of adverse reactions correlates with the dose and duration of metoclopramide administration. Care Unit ICU Sedation. At low concentrations in vitro, metoclopramide increases the resting tone and phasic contractile activity of GI smooth muscle. Numerous papers have reported studies that used metoclopramide to increase milk production. All studies were small with 40 or fewer patients. Most of the studies have designs that would not be considered valid using today's standards of evidence-based medicine. The effects of metoclopramide on gastrointestinal motility are antagonized by anticholinergic drugs and narcotic analgesics. Additive sedative effects can occur when metoclopramide is given with alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, narcotics, or tranquilizers. Kauppila A, Arvela P et al. Metoclopramide and breast feeding: transfer into milk and the newborn. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. This drug should be used during pregnancy only if the benefit outweighs the risk. Johnson AG. The action of metoclopramide on the canine stomach, duodenum, and gallbladder. Br J Surg. Thorburn CW, Sowton E. The haemodynamic effects of metoclopramide. Margieson GR, Sorby WA, Williams HBL. The action of metoclopramide on gastric emptying: a radiological assessment. Med J Aust. Refer to adult dosing. US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Tentative report on the reexamination of the GRAS status of sulfiting agents, October 1984. Bethesda, MD: FASEB Life Sciences Research Office. This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist. price diovan reacoes
Store mixed intravenous ampicillin bags in the refrigerator between 36-46 degrees F 2-8 degrees C. Let a refrigerated bag sit at room temperature at least one hour before using. Check the expiration date before using. Store vials at room temperature 59-86 degrees F or 15-30 degrees C away from light and moisture. not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets. The use of Metoclopramide Tablets, USP is recommended for adults only. Therapy should not exceed 12 weeks in duration. Metoclopramide should be discontinued in patients who develop signs and symptoms of TD. There is no known effective treatment for established cases of TD, although in some patients, TD may remit, partially or completely, within several weeks to months after metoclopramide is withdrawn. Yu YL, Kumana CR, Lauder IJ, et al. Treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage with intravenous glycerol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Minimally metabolized; not known whether major metabolite found in urine is active. The Granisetron Study Group. The antiemetic efficacy and safety of granisetron compared with metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in patients receiving fractionated chemotherapy over 5 days. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome NMS is a possibly fatal syndrome that can be caused by metoclopramide syrup. Symptoms may include fever; stiff muscles; confusion; abnormal thinking; fast or irregular heartbeat; and sweating. Contact your doctor at once if you have any of these symptoms. Baxter HealthcareCorporation Deerfield, IL 60015 USA 07-19-51-541. North RH, McCallum RW, Contino C et al. Tonic dopaminergic suppression of plasma aldosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. ASA-PS III or IV patients. Healthy Adults Less Than 55 Years of Age: Increments of 20 to 50 mg as needed. Metoclopramide has no officially established dosage for increasing milk supply. Most studies have used metoclopramide in a dosage of 10 mg 2 or 3 times daily for 7 to 14 days. Some studies used a tapering dosage for the last days few of the regimen to avoid an abrupt drop in milk supply after drug discontinuation. No published literature supports the efficacy or safety of higher dosages, longer treatment periods or repeated courses of therapy. Robergs RA, Griffin SE. Glycerol. Biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and clinical and practical applications. Use this medication only for the condition for which it was prescribed. Do not use it for longer than prescribed. Scarpello JHB, Baber DC, Hague RV et al. Gastric emptying of solid meals in diabetics. chloromycetin
Use during the first and third trimesters should be avoided when possible. Arvanitakis C, Gonzalez G, Rhodes JB. The role of metoclopramide in peroral jejunal biopsy: a controlled randomized trial. Am J Dig Dis. Kris MG, Hesketh PJ, Somerfield MR et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline for antiemetics in oncology: update 2006. J Clin Oncol. Renal impairment affects the clearance of metoclopramide. In a study with patients with varying degrees of renal impairment, a reduction in creatinine clearance was correlated with a reduction in plasma clearance, renal clearance, non-renal clearance, and increase in elimination half-life. The kinetics of metoclopramide in the presence of renal impairment remained linear however. The reduction in clearance as a result of renal impairment suggests that adjustment downward of maintenance dosage should be done to avoid drug accumulation. Cohen S, DiMarino AJ. Mechanism of action of metoclopramide on opossum lower esophageal sphincter muscle. Gastroenterology. Moshal MG. A rapid jejunal biopsy technique aided by metoclopramide: a double-blind trial with 50 patients. Grunberg SM, Hesketh PJ. Control of chemotherapy-induced emesis. N Engl J Med. Used parenterally in high doses for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with emetogenic cancer chemotherapy including cisplatin alone or in combination with other antineoplastic agents. Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set. Kenney C, Hunter C, Davidson A et al. Metoclopramide, an increasingly recognized cause of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. NS and given IVPB over at least 15 minutes. Note: Rapid IV administration may be associated with a transient but intense feeling of anxiety and restlessness, followed by drowsiness. Dosage modification does not appear to be necessary. The incidence of side effects correlates with dose and duration of metoclopramide therapy. Ponte CD. Metoclopramide in the treatment of an infant with gastroesophageal hypomotility. Drug Intell Clin Pharm.
In an early report, 5 infants were nursed during 7 to 10 days of maternal metoclopramide therapy at a dosage of 10 mg orally 3 times daily. No adverse effects were noted. Nausea and bowel disturbances, primarily diarrhea. EIB when taken 2 hours prior to exercise. Parkinsonism. Symptoms include slight shaking, body stiffness, trouble moving or keeping your balance. If you already have Parkinson's disease, your symptoms may become worse while you are receiving Metoclopramide Tablets. Finnis WA, Bird CE, Wilson DL. Metoclopramide hydrochloride and galactorrhea. DIPRIVAN Injectable Emulsion for ICU sedation. Johnson AG. The effect of metoclopramide on gastroduodenal and gallbladder contractions. Gut. purchase ipratropium vidal
primperan as well, drugstore prices for primperan, buy primperan manufacturer, primperan with insurance, generic primperan order online canada, primperan online no prescription needed, money order primperan australia, primperan price us, how to get primperan, primperan order now mastercard, primperan pills buy now online, buying primperan in the uk, cheap primperan purchase now online, primperan online pharmacy uk, pharmacy primperan drug, cheap primperan buy online payment, primperan generic buy, primperan purchase mastercard australia, primperan purchase payment otc, primperan 120 mg, purchase cheapest primperan online store, shop primperan uk, cost of primperan otc, generic primperan purchase mastercard usa, price primperan basket, primperan generic vs original, is generic primperan the same, primperan prescription cost walmart, cost of primperan dose pack, online primperan instrukcija, can you buy primperan at walgreens, order generic primperan shopping uk, primperan at target, price primperan royal, purchase primperan from canada, where to buy liquid primperan, primperan shop online, buy now primperan payment canada, order primperan visa australia, cheap primperan from canada online, can you primperan uk, where to order now primperan, primperan to order no script, walgreens pharmacy primperan cost, cheap primperan interaction, cheapest primperan buy shop uk, primperan buy online payment uk, cheap primperan wiki, cheap primperan rezeptfrei, primperan online walgreens, primperan over counter, when will primperan 2016, primperan in india, cheap primperan purchase mastercard usa, generic primperan order pharmacy europe, buy primperan online cheap australia, purchase primperan vaistai, order cheap primperan payment europe, purchase now primperan pharmacy canada, canada pharmacy primperan, primperan purchase online store, cheapest primperan purchase australia, buy primperan cancun, primperan purchase now online pharmacy, primperan directly, when will there be a primperan, purchase generic primperan visa, primperan online shopping money order, buy generic primperan visa australia, buy cheap primperan online without a prescription, price primperan thailand, primperan ointment price, order primperan online store uk, generic primperan order now australia, where can i buy primperan over the counter, purchase generic primperan store europe, generic primperan canadian pharmacy, primperan buy online shopping uk, generic primperan order now europe, primperan mexican pharmacy, generic primperan safe effective, primperan suppository price in india, primperan kaiser, generic primperan buy visa uk, generic primperan purchase visa australia, where can i primperan answers, order primperan now, cheap primperan buy visa europe, order cheap primperan shopping australia, how to buy primperan store, price primperan 500 mg, cheap primperan purchase pharmacy, generic name of primperan expectorant, primperan buy now online payment, primperan suppository price, cheapest primperan order payment uk, order primperan online visa, cheap primperan co uk, primperan online finland, can i order primperan shop, fast tabs primperan, primperan closeouts, primperan can i buy store, buy primperan belfast, purchase primperan in new zealand, primperan how to purchase payment, primperan order now payment canada, cost primperan hygien, buy primperan in singapore, cost primperan side, primperan purchase payment australia, primperan coupon, drug primperan price, price primperan sams club, purchase primperan vidal, where do you buy primperan in canada, price primperan reacoes, cheap primperan drug
DIPRIVAN Injectable Emulsion during anesthesia see below. Importance of informing patients that metoclopramide oral solution and tablets are recommended for use in adults only. McKeage MJ. Comparative adverse effect profile of platinum drugs. Drug Saf. Additives may be incompatible. Complete information is not available. Those additives known to be incompatible should not be used. AVIVA are trademarks of Baxter International Inc.
See USP Controlled Room Temperature. Hemodialysis removes relatively little metoclopramide, probably because of the small amount of the drug in blood relative to tissues. Similarly, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis does not remove significant amounts of drug. It is unlikely that dosage would need to be adjusted to compensate for losses through dialysis. Dialysis is not likely to be an effective method of drug removal in overdose situations. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
This latter group of infants would receive about 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. Malagelada JR. Gastric emptying disorders: clinical significance and treatment. Drugs. Hancock BD, Bowen-Jones E, Dixon R et al. The effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying of solid meals. Gut.
Infant Levels. Five breastfed infants were studied whose mothers were taking metoclopramide 10 mg orally 3 times daily beginning on the day 3 to 9 postpartum because of an insufficient milk supply. For the best effect, use this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, use this medication at the same times every day. It contains no agents. Metoclopramide may mask underlying tardive disease by suppressing or partially suppressing tardive dyskinesia signs metoclopramide should not be used to control tardive dyskinesia symptoms as the long-term course is unknown. The risk for tardive dyskinesia appears to be increased in the elderly, women, and diabetics, although it is not possible to predict which patients will develop tardive dyskinesia. There is no known effective treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although in some patients, tardive dyskinesia may remit partially or completely within several weeks to months after metoclopramide is withdrawn.